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[pdf] Muradoglu, M., Horne, Z., Hammond, M. D., Leslie, S. J., & Cimpian, A. (in press). Women—particularly underrepresented minority women—and early-career academics feel like impostors in fields that value brilliance. Journal of Educational Psychology. 


[pdf] Goudeau, S., & Cimpian, A. (in press). How do young children explain differences in the classroom? Implications for achievement, motivation, and educational equity. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 


[pdf] Hammond, M. D., & Cimpian, A. (2021). “Wonderful but weak”: Children’s ambivalent attitudes toward women. Sex Roles, 84, 76–90


[pdf] Storage, D., Charlesworth, T. E. S., Banaji, M. R., & Cimpian, A. (2020). Adults and children implicitly associate brilliance with men more than women. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 90, 104020.   


[pdf] Muradoglu, M., & Cimpian, A. (2020). Children’s intuitive theories of academic performance. Child Development, 91(4), e902–e918


[pdf] Vial, A. C., & Cimpian, A. (2020). Evaluative feedback expresses and reinforces cultural stereotypes. In E. Brummelman (Ed.), Psychological Perspectives on Praise (pp. 119128). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

[pdf] Foster-Hanson, E., Cimpian, A., Leshin, R. A., & Rhodes, M. (2020). Asking children to “be helpers” can backfire after setbacks. Child Development, 91(1), 236–248. 


[pdf] Heyder, A., Weidinger, A. F., Cimpian, A., & Steinmayr, R. (2020). Teachers’ belief that math requires innate ability predicts lower intrinsic motivation among low-achieving students. Learning and Instruction, 65, 101220. 


[pdf] *Jaxon, J., *Lei, R. F., Shachnai, R., Chestnut, E. K., & Cimpian, A. (2019). The acquisition of gender stereotypes about intellectual ability: Intersections with race. Journal of Social Issues, 75(4), 1192–2015


[pdf] Bian, L., Leslie, S. J., & Cimpian, A. (2018). Evidence of bias against girls and women in contexts that emphasize intellectual ability. American Psychologist, 73(9), 11391153. 


[pdf] Boston, J. S., & Cimpian, A. (2018). How do we encourage gifted girls to pursue and succeed in science and engineering? Gifted Child Today, 41(4), 196–207


[pdf] Chestnut, E. K., Lei, R. F., Leslie, S. J., & Cimpian, A. (2018). The myth that only brilliant people are good at math and its implications for diversity. Education Sciences, 8(2), 65. 


[pdf] Bian, L., Leslie, S. J., Murphy, M. C., & Cimpian, A. (2018). Messages about brilliance undermine women’s interest in educational and professional opportunities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 76, 404420. 


[pdf] Cimpian, A., Hammond, M. D., Mazza, G., & Corry, G. (2017). Young children’s self-concepts include representations of abstract traits and the global self. Child Development, 88(6), 17861798. 


[pdf] Cimpian, A., & Leslie, S. J. (2017). The brilliance trap: How a misplaced emphasis on genius subtly discourages women and African-Americans from certain academic fields. Scientific American, 317, 6065.

[pdf] Hammond, M. D., & Cimpian, A. (2017). Investigating the cognitive structure of stereotypes: Generic beliefs about groups predict social judgments better than statistical beliefs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146(5), 607–614


[pdf] Bian, L., Leslie, S. J., & Cimpian, A. (2017). Gender stereotypes about intellectual ability emerge early and influence children's interests. Science, 355(6323), 389391. 


[pdf] Cimpian, A. (2017). Early reasoning about competence is not irrationally optimistic, nor does it stem from inadequate cognitive representations. In A. J. Elliot, C. S. Dweck, & D. S. Yeager (Eds.), Handbook of Competence and Motivation (2nd Edition): Theory and Application (pp. 387–407). New York: Guilford Press.


[pdf] Bian, L., & Cimpian, A. (2017). Are stereotypes accurate? A perspective from the cognitive science of concepts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, e3. [commentary]


[pdf] Qu, Y., Pomerantz, E. M., Wang, M., Cheung, C., & Cimpian, A. (2016). Conceptions of adolescence: Implications for differences in engagement in school over early adolescence in the United States and China. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(7), 1512–1526.

[pdf] Storage, D., Horne, Z., Cimpian, A., & Leslie, S. J. (2016). The frequency of “brilliant” and “genius” in teaching evaluations predicts the representation of women and African Americans across fields. PLOS ONE, 11(3), e0150194.


  • Notes: Top 1% most downloaded of all PLOS ONE articles published in 2016.

[pdf] Cimpian, A., & Leslie, S. J. (2015). Response to comment on “Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines.” Science, 349(6246), 391.

[pdf] Meyer, M., Cimpian, A., & Leslie, S. J. (2015). Women are underrepresented in fields where success is believed to require brilliance. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 235. 


[pdf] *Leslie, S. J., *Cimpian, A., Meyer, M., & Freeland, E. (2015). Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines. Science, 347(6219), 262–265. 


[pdf] Cimpian, A. (2013). Generic statements, causal attributions, and children’s naive theories. In M. R. Banaji & S. A. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the Social World: What infants, children, and other species can teach us (pp. 269–274). New York: Oxford University Press.

[pdf] Cimpian, A., Mu, Y., & Erickson, L. C. (2012). Who is good at this game? Linking an activity to a social category undermines children’s achievement. Psychological Science, 23(5), 533–541. 


[pdf] Cimpian, A., & Erickson, L. C. (2012). The effect of generic statements on children’s causal attributions: Questions of mechanism. Developmental Psychology, 48(1), 159–170.

[pdf] Cimpian, A., & Markman, E. M. (2011). The generic/nongeneric distinction influences how children interpret new information about social others. Child Development, 82(2), 471–492.

[pdf] Cimpian, A. (2010). The impact of generic language about ability on children’s achievement motivation. Developmental Psychology, 46(5), 1333–1340.

[pdf] Cimpian, A., Arce, H. C., Markman, E. M., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Subtle linguistic cues affect children’s motivation. Psychological Science, 18(4), 314–316. 


Our research is
supported by:

Institute of Education Sciences
National Science Foundation
National Institutes of Health
Spencer Foundation
Gates Foundation

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partners include:

Brooklyn Children's Museum
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The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute of Education Sciences or the U.S. Department of Education.